Monday, September 29, 2008

Top 10 Women Politicians in India

At present, there are 50 women among the 543 members of the lower house of Parliament, the Lok Sabha — just 9%. from Sarojini Naidu, who became the first woman to lead the Indian National Congress in 1925 during its struggle for independence from Britain, to Indira Gandhi, who became the country's first woman Prime Minister in 1966, and the plethora of women ministers and state chief ministers that have followed — has not improved the lives of the majority of Indian women. In keeping with South Asian tradition, most high-profile women politicians in India — with a few notable exceptions — have reached the top on the shoulders of illustrious fathers or husbands.
1) Sonia Gandhi

In 1964, Sonia Gandhi went to study English at The Bell Educational Trust's language school in the city of Cambridge. While enrolled in this certificate course she met Rajiv Gandhi, who was enrolled at the time in Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. Sonia and Rajiv were married in 1969, after which she moved into the house of her mother-in-law and then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi. The couple had two children, Rahul Gandhi (born 1970) and Priyanka Gandhi (born 1972). Despite the family's heavy involvement in politics (her mother-in-law Indira Gandhi, daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, was Prime Minister), Sonia and Rajiv avoided all involvement - Rajiv worked as an airline pilot, and Sonia took care of her family. When Indira was ousted from office in 1977 and when Rajiv entered politics in 1982, Sonia continued to focus on her family and avoided all contact with public. She acquired Indian citizenship in 1983 after 14 years of her marriage. She relinquished the prime minister's post in favour of incumbent Manmohan Singh, but she is continuing to be the power behind the throne. She was named the third most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine in the year 2004 and currently ranks 6th . She was also named among the Time 100 most influential people in the world for the years 2007 and 2008. She was returned to Parliament by a margin of over 400,000 votes in the by-election for Rae Bareilly after the office of profit controversy.
2) Pratibha Patil

(born December 19, 1934) is the current President of India, the 12th person and first woman to hold the office. She was sworn in as President of India on July 25, 2007, succeeding Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.Patil, a member of the Indian National Congress (INC), was nominated by the ruling United Progressive Alliance and Indian Left. She won the presidential election held on July 19, 2007 defeating her nearest rival Bhairon Singh Shekhawat by over 300,000 votes.Patil represented Edlabad constituency in Jalgaon District, Maharashtra as a member of the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly (1962-1985), and was deputy chairwoman of the Rajya Sabha (1986-1988), Member of Parliament from Amravati in the Lok Sabha (1991-1996), and the 24th, and the first woman Governor of Rajasthan (2004-2007).
3) Mayawati

The late Kanshi Ram may have been the soul of the Bahujan Samaj Party but it was Mayawati, his chosen heiress, who was its face. (born January 15, 1956) is a Indian politician and the current Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. She has been the Chief Minister on three other short-lived tenures but her party holds the absolute majority in the state on this occasion.Kumari Mayawati was born in Delhi. Her father Prabhu Das was a clerk in the telecommunications department in Delhi. Her mother is Ram Rati. She graduated from Kalindi College in Delhi and holds a Bachelor of Education degree, and was a teacher in Delhi (Inderpuri JJ Colony) until joining full time politics in 1984. At one point she also studied for the Indian Administrative Service examinations. However, after meeting Kanshi Ram in 1977, she gradually came under his patronage, and was part of his core team when he founded the BSP in 1984.In 1984, Kanshi Ram founded the BSP as a party to represent the Dalits, and Mayawati was one of the key people in the new organization. In 2001, Kanshi Ram named her as his successor.
4) Sheila Dikhshit

In a party where obeisance to the high command ranks higher than individual merit, she is different. Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dixit is different in other respects too. She is no-nonsense, believes in speaking her mind, and goes ahead with what needs to be done -- armed with a court order, true -- political fallout be damned. It is thanks to her government that CNG became the norm for heavy vehicles in the capital -- leading to a fall in pollution levels -- the Delhi Metro became a reality, and the hugely unpopular (among traders) anti-sealing drive has taken off. Her father-in-law was the Congress veteran Uma Shankar Dixit and she sure has come a long way.

5)Vasundhara Raje Scindia

She is the BJP's face in Rajasthan, though she comes from Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh. Daughter of the late Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia and sister of the late Madhavrao Scindia, the former minister of state for external affairs in the A B Vajpayee government is Rajasthan's first woman chief minister. Her swearing-in in 2003 was on the lawns of the state assembly, a subtle gesture to leave behind the pageantry of her past. As the voters experiment with the new-found weapon of anti-incumbency, it is anyone's bet if Rajasthan will be any different. But with almost two years to go for elections, the princess turned commoner may be in with a chance.

6) Sushma Swaraj

Everyone agrees that Sushma Swaraj will make for a fine BJP president; everyone it seems barring the BJP's own kingmakers. Are they afraid to trust a woman at the helm? Or, is the lady who ranks eighth in the hierarchy as represented by the national executive too vocal for her own good? She has been there done that, been a Union minister, been Delhi chief minister.

7) Mamta Banarjee

Last year she was considered a washout, her bark deadlier than her bite. Her Trinamul Congress had been worsted in the Bengal assembly election, the Marxist bandwagon brooking no opposition, and yet this year she is back on our front pages and television screens, forcing Bengal Chief Minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharya on the backfoot over the Singur land allocation to the Tatas. Makes one wonder, can anything keep this lady down? A street-fighter to the core, her importance is that she transcends electoral reverses. She continues to occupy the opposition space in Bengal, and it is the Congress that is wooing her back.

8) Brinda Karat

She is the wife of CPI-M General Secretary Prakash Karat and NDTV Chairman Prannoy Roy's sister-in-law. She hogged headlines recently over her famous tiff with yoga guru Baba Ramdev, but that's irrelevant. Instead Brinda Karat would rather be known for ensuring that women have found their due in the stodgy Communist Party of India-Marxist, having resigned from the party's central committee once because she felt that women were not given due representation. In 2005, only after five women were nominated to the central committee did Brinda agree to be included in the 17-member Politburo, the first woman to make it to the CPI-M's highest decision-making body. More power to her, we say.

9) Mehbooba Mufti

She was the architect of the Congress-People's Democratic Party tieup in Jammu and Kashmir that saw the alliance come to power in 2002, after having overseen her party's electoral campaign, and being a tough counterpoint to National Conference youthful Omar Abdullah against who she had lost the 1999 Lok Sabha election. Yet, she stood aside for her father Mufti Mohammed Sayeed to assume the chief ministership for three years under a power-sharing arrangement with the Congress party. As the PDP vice-president, it is she, a single parent of two daughters, who is in charge of the organisational nuts and bolts. Naturally, she is Kashmir's bestknown woman politician.

10) Uma bharti

She was the stormy petrel of the Bharatiya Janata Party, but the party may realise that having Uma on the inside is better than outside. Her career is one of upswings and downfalls. From being sports minister in the Vajpayee ministry, she was handpicked to lead the BJP's charge in the 2003 Madhya Pradesh assembly election, in which she secured a two-thirds majority for the party. Her fall from grace began when she quit in August 2004; her criticism of BJP leaders earned her a suspension from the party, but in May 2005 she was brought back into the national executive. But that was short-lived. Her temper tantrum at a party meeting in full glare of television cameras led to her expulsion. She has since floated the Bharatiya Janshakti Party, which came a-cropper in the recent Uttarakhand assembly election. But observers say Uma Bharti cannot be wished away and will make her worth to the BJP known in the next Madhya Pradesh election.

Some Other important woman politicians


She lost the 2006 assembly election, yes, but all signs are that Jayalalithaa has put the past behind her. And, some say, Tamil Nadu as well. She is keen on a return to the national stage -- after a not-so impressive performance there in 1998-1999 when she brought down Atal Bihari Vajpayee's 13-month-old government after a tea-party with Sonia Gandhi -- and is keenly watching the emergence of the Third Front. She has also brushed up extensively on the India-US nuclear deal, to which she is opposed.

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Thursday, September 25, 2008

Top 20 Business Women in India, Top Business Women, Best Indian Women CEOs, Best women entrepreneurs

Name Position Held Organization Name
1 Akhila SrinivasanManaging DirectorShriram Investments Ltd
2 Chanda KoccharExecutive DirectorICICI Bank
3 Ekta KapoorCreative DirectorBalaji Telefilms
4 Jyoit NaikPresidentLijjat Papad
5 Kiran Mazumdar-ShawChairman and Managing DirectorBiocon
6 Lalita D GupteJoint Managing DirectorICICI Bank
7 Naina Lal KidwaiDeputy CEOHSBC
8 Preetha ReddyManaging DirectorApollo Hospitals
9 Priya PaulChairmanApeejay Park Hotels
10 Rajshree PathyChairmanRajshree Sugars and Chemicals Ltd
11 Ranjana KumarChairmanNABARD
12 Ravina Raj KohliMedia personality and ex-PresidentSTAR News
13 Renuka RamnathCEOICICI Ventures
14 Ritu KumarFashion DesignerFasion Industry
15 Ritu NandaCEOEscolife
16 Shahnaz HussainCEOShahnaz Herbals
17 Sharan ApparaoProprietorApparao Galleries
18 Simone TataChairmanTrent Ltd
19 Sulajja Firodia MotwaniJoint MDKinetic Engineering
20 Tarjani Vakilformer Chairman and Managing DirectorEXIM Bank

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Laser Hair Removal

Laser hair removal

Basic facts
Some consumers have experienced permanent hair reduction, but there is limited data on how long hair reduction usually lasts, how much hair reduction is typical, and how often permanent hair reduction occurs.
Light at a specified wavelength is delivered from a handpiece into the skin, where it targets dark material (usually the pigment in hair).
This is intended to cause thermal and/or mechanical damage to a hair follicle while sparing surrounding tissues.
Some consumers have experienced long-lasting hair removal or permanent hair reduction.
Considered safe if performed properly.
Useful for large areas such as backs or legs.
Regrowth can come back lighter in color or finer in texture.
Light-skinned consumers with dark hair have the best results.
Long-term data on safety and effectiveness have not been accurately established.
Response rates have not been established.
Regrowth rates have not been accurately established and cannot be predicted due to numerous variables.
Generally not as effective on unpigmented (gray) hairs and red or blonde hair.
Must be used very cautiously (if at all) on darker skin tones or on consumers who tan themselves.
Improper treatment can cause burns, lesions, skin discoloration lasting several months, or patchy/patterned regrowth.
Recent data suggest other skin structures are often affected by laser irradiation, and long term effects of this constitute an unknown risk.
Requires eye protection.
Can be expensive.
Some find treatment painful.
Regulation varies by state, so inadequate controls exist to ensure competent practitioners.
Some consumers, even ideal candidates, do not respond to treatment.
Quack claims
"Painless" or "virtually painless"
While many clients tolerate laser without requiring pain relief, it's overpromise to state that treatment will be painless for all consumers.
"Permanent hair removal" or "100% permanent" or "permanent"
Some consumers experience permanent reduction of treated hair over the course of treatment, but published studies have observed that many consumers are not good candidates, and even ideal candidates with light skin and dark hair do not always respond to treatment. See the page on permanent hair reduction below.
"Guaranteed 0% regrowth"
There is no published clinical data to substantiate this sort of overpromise.
"Laser electrolysis" or "lasertrolysis"
These quack marketing terms are used to blur important distinctions between laser and electrolysis effectiveness. Laser has several advantages over electrolysis, and vice versa. Terms like these only confuse consumers.
"Light years ahead of electrolysis"
This quack marketing term suggests that laser is better than electrolysis for consumers, but this is not always the case.

Hair removal methods available in India

The science of body hairHuman hairs are made up of two separate structures -- the follicle beneath the surface of the skin and the shaft, which is the part we see. The "bulb" or "bulge" is located at the base of the follicle and is the living part of the hair. The main component of hair is keratin, a form of hard protein.
Human body hair comes in two main types -- vellus hair and terminal hair. Vellus hair, also referred to as "peach fuzz," is a very soft and short type of hair that grows on most parts of both the male and female human body. Vellus hairs generally do not grow more than 2 cm in length and are not attached to sebaceous glands, which are found in the skin of humans and other mammals. Terminal hair, on the other hand, tends to be longer, darker, and coarser than vellus hair. During puberty the rising level of androgens causes some vellus hair to transform into terminal hair, most often in areas such as the under arms, genital areas, legs, and forearms. In addition, mostly for men, terminal hair can grow on the face, back, chest, and shoulders. Women are generally most concerned with removing hair from the eyebrows, armpits, legs, and bikini area while men mostly concentrate on hair removal from the face and shoulders.
Electrolysis hair removal
Electrolysis is a form of permanent hair removal that uses electricity. During the process of electrolysis, a qualified practitioner inserts a fine metal probe into the hair follicle, delivering an electric current which destroys the area that generates the hair. Tweezers are then used to remove the loosened hair, and the process is repeated for each individual hair. While electrolysis is the most permanent form of hair removal available, a number of treatments are usually required. This is because some hairs may be missed or may be in their dormant stage during any given treatment session. Also, electrolysis treatments should be administered carefully in order to avoid dangers such as electric shock, excessive pain, infection, and scarring. While it is costly and time-consuming, when carried out properly home electrolysis can provide effective, permanent hair removal.
Epilators are mechanical devices consisting of a coiled spring or rubber roller that catches or grasps multiple hairs and pulls them out of the skin. This form of hair removal works particularly well on arms and legs and its effect can last from several days to several weeks. However, the use of these tools is somewhat restricted. This is due to the fact that hair must be between one-quarter of an inch and one third of an inch long in order for epilators to work. In addition, the use of epilators can be quite painful for some people, especially in sensitive areas. Pulling hairs out by the roots in this fashion can also lead to ingrown hairs and irritated skin. Sometimes it is beneficial to undergo a waxing treatment prior to attempting to use epilators in order to reduce the likelihood of such occurrences.
Hair growth inhibitors
Hair growth inhibitors are pharmaceuticals designed to reduce hair by retarding or inhibiting hair's growth. Hair growth inhibitors are available as oral medications and topical preparations, some of which require a prescription from your doctor. With continued use, hair growth inhibitors can provide long-lasting or permanent hair reduction, although these products are more effective for some people than others. Even for over-the-counter brands, it is usually best to consult a physician before using hair growth inhibitors as some are only safe for certain people, or may cause unwanted side effects.
Hair removal creams / depilatories
Hair removal creams, also known as depilatories, are products which chemically dissolve hair, allowing it to be easily scraped or brushed off the skin. These creams come in several forms, including lotions, gels, aerosols, and roll-on products. Hair removal through the use of depilatories is usually effective for approximately two to five days. Hair removal creams are inexpensive, can be employed at home, and are fast to use. However, these products can also cause skin irritation and often leave a visible shadow of hair beneath the skin of dark-haired people. Some people also find the odor of depilatories very unpleasant. Those with particularly sensitive skin should be cautious when using hair removal creams and everyone should be sure to pay careful attention to any directions accompanying this type of product.
Ingrown hair treatments
Ingrown hairs occur when a hair is broken off beneath the skin and begins to grow at an angle instead of up through the skin. They appear as little red bumps on the skin and can cause irritation and an unsightly rash. Sometimes a small, sterilized needle can be used to free the hair. Otherwise, solutions containing salicylic acid can be used to treat this problem. Products containing salicylic acid act as exfoliants and target these troublesome follicles, freeing them from beneath the skin. Many of these ingrown hair treatments are safe for both men and women to use on many parts of the body.
Laser hair removal
Laser hair removal is a permanent form of hair reduction, the effectiveness of which varies from person to person. Often, follow-up treatments are necessary in order to achieve the best results. Three to six sessions are generally required, although at times even more treatments are needed. During this type of treatment, lasers generally target hair follicles, damaging them while leaving the rest of the skin intact. Laser hair removal is considered to be a safe procedure when performed properly by a qualified practitioner. It is particularly useful for large areas such as legs and backs. In addition, this form of hair removal has proved most effective for fair skinned people with dark hair, as the lasers often target the pigmented part of the hair follicle. The disadvantages of laser hair removal are that it can be painful, it tends to be expensive, and improper treatments can cause burns, skin discoloration, and patchy regrowth. When planning to undergo this type of treatment, it is important to make sure that your practitioner is experienced and qualified.
Plucking is a form of hair removal that involves pulling or plucking hairs out by the roots, one at a time, using fingers or tweezers. This method of hair removal is often used for eyebrows and other facial hair, and generally lasts for approximately three weeks. Plucking is a cheap form of hair removal that is particularly useful for removing small numbers of stray hairs. Be sure to sterilize your tweezers before using them to remove hairs in this fashion. Ingrown hairs can be caused by plucking, as can pitting and scarring. Plucking can be painful and should not be used on nose hairs in order to avoid dangerous infections.
Shaving involves using a sharp metal blade to remove hair by cutting it off at the skin's surface. This can be done either manually or with an electric razor. This method tends to be effective for body hair for approximately four days. Shaving is a fast, inexpensive, and safe way to remove body hair at home. At the same time, care must be taken to avoid cuts, skin irritation, and ingrown hairs. For sensitive areas, it is sometimes helpful to shave in the direction of hair growth in order to minimize such problems. In addition, changing blades regularly is beneficial in this regard. Lathering and soaking the skin prior to shaving is also a good idea and will reduce the likelihood of irritating problems.
Sugaring, sometimes referred to as Persian waxing, is a hair removal method that has been used for thousands of years. It involves the application of a sticky, sugary paste to the skin. A strip of paper or porous cloth is then pressed into the preparation. The strip is pulled quickly away from the skin, opposite to the direction of hair growth, removing the hairs with it. Sugaring typically lasts for about three to six weeks and is an inexpensive form of hair removal that can easily be done at home. It can be a messy undertaking, however, and can cause hairs to break off below the skin's surface.
Waxing is a form of hair removal very similar to sugaring. For this method, a layer of wax is applied to the skin and quickly removed using a strip of cloth or paper. This not only pulls hairs out by their roots, it also removes dead skin. As a result, waxing is a very effective form of temporary hair removal that leaves the skin smooth and generally lasts for three to eight weeks. It can be used on nearly any part of the body, including the eyebrows, face, legs, abdomen, and bikini area. Waxing can be carried out either on your own at home or by a qualified cosmetologist or esthetician. Repeated use of waxing often results in slower hair regrowth and, at times, the destruction of some hair roots. Eventually, this may lead to permanent hair reduction. Waxing is a fast and inexpensive hair removal method but, as with sugaring, it can be messy and can result in ingrown hairs and irritation. Exfoliating regularly and applying a solution of astringent and oil can greatly reduce the occurrence of these problems.

Friday, September 12, 2008

"Don't push me, 'cause I'm close to the edge..."

Well, Archbishop Niederauer has invited Mrs. Pelosi in for a chat. Somehow, I don't envision Mrs. Pelosi leaving that meeting proclaiming "I've seen the light!". Seems to me that there would be some highly nuanced and carefully worded statement regarding "dialogue" - that favorite word of the Enemies of the Church.

Of course, the National Catholic Distorter weighs in on it, complete the required liberal opinion of a couple of dissenters ( Reese and O'Brien ).
Here's what David J. O’Brien, professor emeritus of Catholic studies at Holy Cross College had to say : “It shows some willingness to have dialogue,” O’Brien said. “There’s been movement to make the bishops’ role primarily one of teacher, his job is to proclaim. This shows a willingness to listen, I hope. Bishops should be having a conversation with their church.”

Link to the article :

Gee, and I thought their primary job WAS to teach. Maybe I didn't pay attention in my late-70's "theology" class at Bishop Liberal High School...

Wednesday, September 10, 2008

Indian woman dressing

In India the main dress for woman is Salwar suit and saree. They also started adopting western culture and have started wearing jeans, tshirts, skirts etc.

Indian Fashion - ancient fashion in India

Ancient Indian fashion garments generally used no stitching although Indians knew about sewing. Most clothes were ready to wear as soon as they left the loom. The traditional Indian Dhoti, the Scarf or Uttariya, and the popular Turban are still visible India and continue to be part of Indian fashion. Likewise, for women, the Dhoti or the Sari as the lower garments, combined with a Stanapatta forms the basic ensemble, and once again consists of garments that do not have to be stitched, the stanapatta being simply fastened in a knot at the back. And the Dhoti or the Sari worn covering both legs at the same time or, in the alternative, with one end of it passed between the legs and tucked at the back in the fashion that is still prevalent in large area of India. Indian men and women for these garments in the usually hot Indian climate. - dhoti when he speaks of 'turbans used for trousers', and a kaupina when he is speaking of 'a rag of two fingers' breadth bound over the loins.

Indian sari remains the traditional clothing of Indian women. Worn in varied styles, it is a long piece of flat cotton, silk or other fabric woven in different textures with different patterns. The sari has a lasting charm since it is not cut or tailored for a particular size.
This graceful feminine attire can also be worn in several ways and its manner of wearing as well as its color and texture are indicative of the status, age, occupation, region and religion of a woman.

The tightly fitted, short blouse worn under a sari is called a choli. The choli evolved as a form of Indian clothing around the tenth century AD and the first cholis were only front covering; the back was always bare.
Another popular attire of women in Indian clothing is the Indian salwar-kameez. This popular Indian dress evolved as a comfortable and respectable garment for women in Kashmir and Punjab region, but is now immensely popular in all regions of India. Salwars are pyjama-like trousers drawn tightly in at the waist and the ankles. Over the salwars, women wear a long and loose tunic known as a kameez. One might occasionally come across women wearing a churidar instead of a salwar. A churidar is similar to the salwar but is tighter fitting at the hips, thighs and ankles. Over this, one might wear a collarless or mandarin-collar tunic called a kurta.
Though the majority of Indian women wear traditional Indian dresses, the men in India can be found in more conventional western clothing like shirts and trousers.
However, men in Indian villages are still more comfortable in traditional attire like kurtas, lungis, dhotis and pyjamas. Indian dresses & styles are marked by many variations, both religious and regional and one is likely to witness a plethora of colors, textures and styles in garments worn by the Indians.

Use of Gold in Indian Fashion: For this reason, some gold ornament is usually worn against the skin at all times. Indian Gold ornaments are popular because the metal is believed to have the power purify anything it touches.
Ornaments of gold and other metals, often combined with precious and semi-precious gems and beads, are popular with both men and women in India.
Traditionally, Indian ornaments had economic significance for women too. The ornaments given to her at her wedding constituted a daughter's inheritance from her father ( Dowry).
Customarily land and other property was divided among the sons, though this no longer holds true. In addition, a bride's ornaments were financial security throughout her life.
Ornaments of Indian Fashion :

Nose pin: More common than a nose ring, both are symbols of purity & marriage, though today many unmarried Indian girls wear this adornment.
Necklace: These are very popular fashion accessories across India amongst girls and women of all ages. Necklaces are made of a variety of materials, ranging from glass beads to gold and diamonds. One special necklace is the mangalasutra, worn only by married Indian women. It is the Indian equivalent of the western wedding ring. Traditionally a woman wore it during her wedding ceremony and took it off only if her husband died.
Bangles: Worn on the wrist, bangles are believed to be protective bands and women always wore them as symbolic guards over their husbands. As with other ornaments, bangles today are worn by women of all ages all over India and are made of silver, gold, wood, glass, and plastic, among other materials.
Ear rings: Rings, studs and other ornaments worn in the ears are popular all over the country. In fact, a girl's ears are usually pierced before her first birthday.
Other important ornaments are finger rings, toe rings and anklets. Rings for the fingers are again, of various materials and designs and worn by unmarried and married women. Since the ring has become a common adornment, it is no longer considered a symbol in Indian marriages.
However, toe rings and anklets are still worn mostly by married women. Ornaments for the feet are usually made of silver because gold, being a 'pure' metal, was not supposed to be worn on the feet. This privilege was given only to women of royal Indian families.
In addition to these ornaments is the 'mangatika' or 'tikli'. This ornament, worn at the top of the forehead in the parting of the hair, is usually a small pendant on the end of a chain that is clasped to the hair. Although traditionally this ornament was also worn as a symbol of marriage, today it is not so commonly worn even by married women.
Kajal or Eyeliner : From the time a child is six days old, its mother applies kajal to its eyes and also a small black dot on the forehead to mar the child's beauty. This 'imperfection' is said to protect from evil.
Sindoor : dot on forehead of woman indicating married status of Indian Women, power, protection for her husband. It is applied by the husband as part of wedding ceremony.

Friday, September 5, 2008

Obama vs. Pro-Life

Obama finally gets specific on something and guess what it is? McCain's pro-life stand.

Well, you know what Obama considers important - making sure that every child that *can* be aborted actually gets aborted.